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Robopsychologist

What is robopsychologist or psychologist of robots?

Jurica Dujomovic (@JDBrandManager) published a description of robot psychology in Market Trends.

I have condensed it quite bit here.

Purpose of robopsychology

Our purpose is to understand AI and actively work on it to develop machines that are efficient, easy to use, and responsive to our purposes.

Tasks of a robopsychologist

  1. Analyse learning and decision-making algorithms and adjust them to function better in real-world scenarios
  2. Teach ethics to AI in a way the machine can understand, “internalize” and prioritize during its decision-making process.
  3. Use algorithms and robots to test theories before they are applied to humans (e.g., similarly to agent-based modelling)

Important value-added tasks of robot psychology

  1. Track learning/decision-making errors and issues that artificial intelligence can’t resolve on its own and adjust a robot’s learning pattern to allow for correction and continuation of the learning process.
  2. Help AI acquire information and enable better decision making.

Watch this space!

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Types of logic

In a very useful paper Jayanti (2011) compares deductive, inductive and abductive logic.  I am using her examples here because they are couched in business language and are easier to remember than the examples used in textbooks.

I also would like to extend Jayanti’s typology to conductive logic described by Floridi (2017).

Floridi, L. (2017). The Logic of Design as a Conceptual Logic of Information. Minds and Machines, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11023-017-9438-1

Jayanti, E. B. (2011). Toward Pragmatic Criteria for Evaluating HRD Research. Human Resource Development Review, 10(4), 431–450. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484311412723

Deductive reasoning

All companies have logos.

This organisation is a company.

Therefore, it has a logo.

We assert truths about the world (All companies have logos) and about the case (the organisation is a company).  If the assertion about the case is true (usually justified in the Participants section), then whether or not it has a logo ‘tests’ the truth of the first statement.

When we only want to test the idea that more companies than none have a logo, then we can take a sample of companies. If they have more logos than we can contribute to measurement error, we accept that the first statement is not wrong.

Induction

All these organisations are companies.

All these organisations have logos.

Therefore, all companies have logos.

This methodology begins with data-in-hand and constructs a rule that is similar to the truth asserted in the first example.  In the first example, we intend to test the statement.  In this example, we arrive at the statement and we could go on to test it as before.

We can see the ‘stretch’ in inductive reasoningand most of us are uncomfortable unless this is exploratory research and the work moves on to that test.

This logic may also be useful for accounting for a case, in which case the truth value of the assertion is a methodological question that remains within the case and is not generalized beyond the case.

We are asserting information about the conclusion rather than the starting premise but in most ways it is used, this is simply a version of the positivistic paradigm as the example under deduction

Abduction

All companies have logos.

This organisation has a logo.

Therefore, this organisation is probably a company.

The ‘stretch’ here is even greater than under induction, but it is limited to the case-in-hand.  It is when what we assumed would be true about case is evidently not so that we put a question mark around the first statement.

The purpose of abductive reasoning is to be practical. We are trying to make sense of one case and extend things we ‘know/believe’ to be true.  Surprise requires us to take action and think again.  We accept plausible, coherent accounts until they do not work.

Conduction

Floridi (2017) suggests conduction goes further than abduction.  Writing as an information theorist, a technologist takes a set of requirements and puts together a system that satisfies those requirements. The movement from requirements to the system is conduction.  The system can still be tested deductively (does it meet the requirements?).

How could be phrased this in terms of companies and logos?

I want this to be company, meaning, it needs a legal persona of its own and must be recognised as an entity separate from its owners and have limited liability. These are requirements.  The organisation must be able to do {a, b, c}.

And the working solution could be {name, logo, registration and founding documents, directors to act for it, an official address to serve legal papers, an initial capital investment, up-to-date accounts}.  The organisation will have {x, y, z}.

We may work this out mimetically, and probably do. Imagining, the solution is conduction and has to be constructed in the local situation  . . . that is situated and embodied.

The imaginative solution also depends upon past experience, i.e.,  knowing what will work together and what the actor is able to do.

The imaginative solution anticipates meeting the requirements but it is likely that there many, but not any sets of requirements that would suffice.

 

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Six steps for a critical psychological research

What is critical research?

Critical research acknowledges power at the level of society, e.g., class in the United Kingdom.

Critical psychological research

Psychological research rarely takes a critical approach. The work of Stuart Carr at Massey in New Zealand on poverty and say, how expats justify their high salaries, is critical.

Steps for critical research

Here are six steps for a fundamentally critical approach to psychological research.

  1. We are both not fully conscious of the choices we make every day (e.g., hegemony) and, we can see conceal our interests (e.g., models of society’s conflict).
  2. Practically, we will not attend to issues unless something outside of the everyday prompts us to do so.
  3. New ideas often come from the “boy commenting on the lack of the Emperors’ clothes”.  The comments may be challenging but they often are dismissed as being naïve.
  4. Though we’re sensitized by the critical literature, and our role as academics, we are biased to
  5. The behavioural, observable data, or signal, that something interesting is going on is when people are silenced. We can detect that from texts using corpus linguistics (e.g., passive voice) but we’ll also pick it up by watching.  This is a fundamental tool for psychologists – what is making someone uncomfortable?  From their point of view, something doesn’t stack up.
  6. This method contrasts with much of the qualitative work which analyses what is said rather than what was not said.  I am not proposing thematic analysis but a way to consider counterfactuals and to consider what brings about the agenda of a group.

When to use this methodology

To use this methodology, you will need to be sufficiently trusted to be able to observe a group or the situation needs to be public.

You also need a reason to believe that taking a ‘broader angle lens’ so the group can see itself against the backdrop of what is happening in the wider world.

These methodologies are labour-intensive and the deeper investigations should begin with a compassionate intent and a reasonable belief that greater value is possible with greater sociological imagination or a historical view. And you should have time and resources to follow through to help the group digest and absorb the conversations that follow from this approach.

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Design by design!

Engaged design

Design . . .  should be elegant and pleasing.   It should also be functional and achieve its purpose.   Most importantly its purpose should be our purpose.

Engaged design in New Zealand

New Zealand has a strong tradition in design and a temperamental inclination  to engagement.   Well-worn jokes include the No 8. wire used to fix anything and everything on the Kiwi farm and the Kiwi dislike of large organisations.  A British general is reputed to have commented that Kiwi troops do not salute much.  His Kiwi counterpart replied, “but if you wave they will wave back.”

Tradition of design in New Zealand

Kiwis are articulate though about their design and their participation.   The Britten Instituge supports community activity and has an accessible, unpretentious,  list of design principles to bring people together.

“It is not innovation that matters, it is agreement. And we might need innovation to reach agreement.”

Design in Europe

I am very interested in reconciling the two bodies of knowledge that Western thought likes to keep apart if not regarding them as competitors.

Positive psychology promotes our engagement with life and of work with our engagement!  Yet we must make money too and the world is about to get very much more competitive for those of us in United Kingdom.  I have far more visitors to this blog to manage a small server than I do because someone wants to be happy!

What we want from design today?

Can we reconcile the holistic, engaged Britten approach to technical work?  I would like to try.

 

 

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Speeding up WordPress

My! This is slow.  More will follow!

Benchmarks

Using Google Page Insights,

Page Speed at Time 1

I have two speed benchmarks.

Mobile: 67

Desktop: 85

Page Speed benchmarks from a small WP site

My main page (that is not responsive) using a WP theme written by myself has comparative figures of 91 and 96.

Page Speed  benchmarks from a large Drupal Site (university)

Mobile: 52 & Desktop: 65

Page Speed benchmarks from another university site (CMS unknown)

Mobile: & Desktop: 72 & 74

Tests

Remove unneeded plugins and themes; changed themes

Marginal improvement

Mobile: 68

Desktop: 85

Found a theme with following speeds

Mobile: 79

Desktop: 86

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Blog too big? Tidy up and make eBooks?

Blog too big to manage? Does WordPress have plugins to help?

I have almost a thousand posts on this blog and I would dearly love to tidy them up; but this is a horribly big job.  Posts for one year alone come to about 500 printed pages and there is almost a decade of writing on here.

My search for  eBook plugins  for Word press begins

MPL plugin for WordPress

I have just now downloaded and activate my first eBook plugin: MPL.

Over the coming days I will test it and then try others too.

What I hope to do to tidy my blog

Goal 1:  Dead posts

When I spot a post that I really do not want to keep, I would like to delete it.

The post might be important to other people though.  Before I delete it, I will check on the Google statistics on Google Analytics, the analytics through Jetpack, and if it is an old post, the statistics on the original wordpress.com blog that I had and that redirects here.

How do I know if someone links to it?  And does it matter, if the link delivers no traffic?  It would be good to find out though.

My statistics will include

  1. The number of posts considered for deleting
  2. The number retained anyway
  3. Why I retained them

Goal 2: Interesting posts that might maintain a sense of my interests changing over the years

A post may be pretty much dead but it might be a market of my interests over the year.  Nostalgic perhaps, but I would like to complete those.

Maybe, I should simply make one of my eBooks – The first decade.

Indeed, this is the value of writing. I will do this first to give myself an overview of the blog.

Can I download a list of all 1000 posts, with their dates, tags and comments and look for a pattern?

Can I find out their current traffic too?

Task 1:  Get overall statistics for my blog

?? What is missing here?

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Alternative corporate tax regimes

We all know by now that the likes of Google, Amazon and Starbucks pay very little corporate tax in the UK.

  • We know that our corporate taxes tend to be low though they are not as low as Ireland’s and Sweden’s.
  • We might also have an intuition that corporate taxes are a significant part of GDP. We would miss them if we didn’t have them but .  .  . they are only about 3% of GDP. Surprised?

What is even more surprising is that though our corporate taxes are low, they are a larger part of our GDP than in Germany, say. My first thought was, ah good, we set individual corporate taxes low but gain on the aggregated. But of course earning more from corporate taxes than Germany is just a reminder that we earn less from more productive sources. So perhaps not hurrah for us.
So what are the issues surrounding corporate taxation? The issue that energises us at the moment is the crafty use of tax law and corporate structures to lower tax liabilities. Academic accountants are proposing various different ways of taxing companies and here are my notes below.

Cash-flow taxes

Instigator: Meade Report
Core idea: Tax net cash flow rather than profits.

Changes:

  • Abolish deductions for depreciation and interest payments.
  • Deduct investment expenditure when it occurs.

Spelled out:

  • Investment becomes a current cost.
  • Sales of capital costs are treated as any other cash inflow.
  • Both loans and interest payments are not subject to tax (similarly to equity injections and dividend payments)
  • Trading transactions are taxed; not financing operations

Difficulties:

  • Does not apply well to banking trading operations
  • Other countries would still be making distinctions between debt and equity

Variant: “R+F”

  • Tax borrowings as cash inflows and treat payments of principal and interest as deductibles
  • Would apply to trading operations of banks

Follow-up question:

  • VAT on financial services
  • Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE)

 

Instigator: IFS Capital Taxes Group (1991)
Core idea: Provide explicit tax relief for the (imputed) opportunity cost of using shareholder funds to finance the operations of a company
Comparison with other methods:

  • Allows for 100% allowance for equity-financed investment not provided for in cash-flow methods
  • Equates to allowing the interest cost of debt-finance in ‘standard’ corporate taxation

Essence:

  • The normal return on equity-finance investment is removed from the corporate tax base

Mechanics:

  • Calculate the closing stock of shareholder funds at the end of the previous period
  • Opening stock + Equity issued – Equity repurchased + Retained profits
  • PV of a stream of tax payments will not depend on details of deprecation schedule
  • Opportunity cost is the risk-free (nominal) interest rate

Comparisons with personal taxation:

  • ACE compares with RRA (rate of return allowance)
  • Cash-flow proposals compare with EET treatment of savings
  • Reduce rebates and carry-forward provisions by aligning timing of tax payments with actual returns

Notes:

  • Retains much of existing tax structure
  • Taxes the excess over nominal rates of return
  • Debt and equity financing equivalent in PV terms and in relation to tax timing provided depreciation schedules are realistic
  • Taxes only become liable when returns exceed a normal rate of return
  • But if taxing rents taxes effort and risk?
  • To implement, only need to specify how the equity based evolves over time and the nominal interest rate

Comprehensive Business Income Tax (CBIT)

Essential idea: Tax the interest on debt financing in the hands of the debtor, i.e., tax corporate profits after depreciation but before interest.

Issues:

  • Raises required RoR for both debt and equity financing
  • Hugely increase tax in banking and financial services that currently deduct their interest payments
  • CBIT effectively taxing returns to debt and equity at the corporate level.

Developments:

  • Increasingly, limited interest deductibility across borders to stop subsidiaries in high tax regimes borrowing from parent companies in low tax regimes
  • Increasingly, limit deductions for financing foreign operations are exempt from local tax

Comparisons with other systems:

  • ACE and cash-flow taxes change the tax base and exclude normal returns on savings (which are taxed at a personal level)
  • Cash-flow taxes are close to the expenditure treatment of personal savings
  • ACE is similar to RoR Allowance on personal savings.
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WordPress to Drupal : First steps

 

I plan to use Drupal to re-organize this large blog: flowingmotion.jojordan.org.  This post lists the beginning steps.  Each step is quite large and if you are completely new to web development, you will need to look up and complete each step as a mini-project.

  1. Make a development environment on my laptop.  Set up WAMP.
  2. Set up Drush so that I download Drupal and its modules more easily.
  3. Set up a clean database in WAMP / PHPMyAdmin.
  4. Download the latest version of Drupal 7 and unpack it into folder in c:/wamp/www/myblog
  5. Go to my browser and install Drupal: “localhost/myblog”
  6. Use the command line to use Drush : “cd c:/wamp/www/myblog”
  7. Use Drush to download and enable the modules for “pretty url”
    1. drush dl token pathauto
    2. drush en -y token pathauto
  8. Chose a theme and use Drush to download/upload it.  I used Stanford’s Open Framework and downloaded it manually to /myblog/sites/all/themes.
  9. Logged in, set the time to UK and set up the date format.
  10. Under Appearance, set the Open Framework to the default
  11. Use Drush to install the modules needed for WordPress_Migrate (see above for the commands): migrate ctools features  media media_youtube migrate_extras
  12.  As of today’s date though this will change, do not download WordPress_migrate with drush. Go to its webpage and install the latest development version
  13. Go to Add Content and select Migrate. Look for the Worpress link
  14. Follow the instructions – all of the them!
  15. I  tried to retained my WordPress urls but that did not work and the aliases are borked too.  As it was not straightforward finding this workflow, I will leave this for now and worry about sorting my comment.

These are the basic steps for importing WordPress content into Drupal. It is not perfect but as this is a one off import, it is satisfactory.

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WordPress to Drupal

Here begins my migration from WordPress to Drupal.

Why move from WordPress to Drupal?

I don’t advise anyone to move from WordPress to Drupal unless they have a strong reason.  WordPress is friendly and you will be functional and confident in few months.

Drupal is overly complicated, bloated and very badly documented.

So why move to Drupal?

Drupal is designed for complicated sites.  The Views facility, that is, it’s query function is very powerful.

This blog, Flowingmotion.jojordan.org has grown very big.  I don’t even remember everything i have written.   And I would like to find out.  I would like to delete what is no longer of any use. I would like to organize what is still valuable. And I would like to rewrite what could benefit from rewriting.]

The benefits of migrating from WordPress to Drupal

I intend to download the content of this WordPress blog onto a development site on my laptop and reorganize its content.

I will use a Drupal module to do a rough-and-ready migration.   Then I will start allocating posts to “Books”.   That is, I will set up a “Book” and cross-reference them to existing posts.  Once I have done that, I will be able to make a plan for each Book or collection.

I have also chosen a simple base them to think ahead to a “responsive” theme. I want people to be able to read my “Books” on their mobiles. When I rewrite the posts, I will take the smaller screen estate into account and chunk and structure the posts so that people can follow a complicated idea more easily.

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